How does a molecule that is 100,000 times heavier than water, compared to a molecule that is 200 times heavier, compare? This question is very important to ask of scientists because it provides the first clue to how the elements in a molecule work together to form a whole.
In fact, a molecule that is 100,000 times heavier than water, compared to a molecule that is 200 times heavier, is very similar in size to a molecule that is only the size of a cigarette, but the first ionization energy required to make that particular molecule is much lower than the ionization energy to make a cigarette. So, by the time we see our molecules we can already tell that they are in a whole.
The biggest part of all is the ionization energy of the atom, which in many ways is the only way to make a molecule to be able to do what you’re trying to do. We are so fixated on ionization energy because we need it to work all the way to the poles to make a molecule to be able to do what you’re trying to accomplish.
The key is to think about the potential energy of any atom and how it can change shape. For instance, a molecular vibrational vibrational mode can be made to look like a ring. And then a molecular vibrational mode can be made to look like a necklace. We can think about how that would have been useful to have seen a molecule as though it had a ring.
The most common way of doing this as far as I know is to consider the energy of individual electrons and the energy of their orbitals. For instance, the energy of an electron is equal to the kinetic energy of the electron, divided by its momentum. The orbital energy of an electron is equal to the energy of its orbital divided by the number of electrons in the orbitals.
In this energy level diagram there are seven potential energy levels of an atom. In the most common approach, we are counting the energy levels of the electrons and then dividing that by the number of electrons in the system. However, this count is incorrect in the case of a closed system like a molecule. The correct way to count energy levels is to count the number of electrons in the system’s orbitals.
The difference between this approach and the previous one is due to the electron being split into two separate electrons. In this new model, the energy level is the total of the energies of those electrons, minus the energy of the hole where the electron was originally.
Again, the hole, or electron, is important. You can see it as a particle that is split into two particles. An electron has two protons, or nucleons. If you divide this by two, you can see that the number of protons is two half-particles, or two protons that are linked together.
The hole is a fundamental property of the atom, so the size of the hole is always roughly equal to the energy of the electron that created it. In fact, it is so exact that the energy level of the hole is always the same as the energy level of the electron created it.